Peltier heating technology, also known as the Peltier effect or thermoelectric cooling, is a method of heating and cooling based on the thermoelectric effect. The thermoelectric effect is the generation of an electric current when two dissimilar metals are joined together at their ends and subjected to a temperature gradient.
Peltier heating technology uses a device called a thermoelectric cooler (TEC) or Peltier device, which consists of two ceramic plates sandwiching a semiconductor material. When an electrical current is applied to the device, it causes one side of the device to become hot and the other side to become cold. This effect is reversible, meaning that by reversing the polarity of the electrical current, the hot and cold sides can be switched.
Peltier heating technology has several advantages over traditional heating and cooling methods. It is a solid-state technology, which means that it has no moving parts, making it quiet and reliable. It is also highly efficient, with a coefficient of performance (COP) that can be up to three times higher than traditional cooling methods such as refrigeration. Additionally, it can be used in a variety of applications, including cooling electronic components, controlling the temperature of medical samples, and maintaining the temperature of food and beverages.
However, one of the limitations of Peltier heating technology is its relatively low power density, which makes it less suitable for high-power applications. Additionally, the cooling capacity of a Peltier device is limited by its size, and multiple devices may be needed to achieve higher cooling power.